Ligand binding to receptor proteins functions in signal transduction.

intracellular receptors

While a large number of cell-surface receptors are employed in receiving environmental signals, fine-tuning of intracellular signaling relies upon a larger number of intracellular receptors and 'signaling' enzymes.

Location of intracellular receptors
● nucleus
● endoplasmic reticulum
● cytoplasm
● intracellular vesicles [s]

Families include receptors/for :
● constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3, NR1I3)
● farnesoid X receptor (FXR, nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4, NR1H4)
● IP3 receptor (inositol triphosphate, IP3, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, type 1, ITPR1)
● liver X receptor
● peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs, α, γ and δ)
● pregnane X receptor
● retinoic acid receptor (RARA)
● retinoid X receptor (RXRA)
● sigma1 (neurosteroids)
● steroid and sex hormones
● thyroid hormone (α and β)

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